What? So What? Now What?


One of the most techniques for effective reflection is based on 3 questions.  It is a basic way to promote discussion that begins with

reviewing the details of the experience and moves toward critical thinking, problem solving, and creating an action plan.


  • descriptive

  • facts, what happened, with whom

  • substance of group interaction

So what?:

  • shift from descriptive to interpretive

  • meaning of experience for each participant

  • feelings involved, lessons learned

  • why?

Now what?:

  • contextual-- seeing this situation's place in the big picture

  • applying lessons learned/insights gained to new situations

  • setting future goals, creating an action plan

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